Book of Storage Services
Files (File Services)
The Nutanix Files feature allows users to leverage the Nutanix platform as a highly available file server. This allows for a single namespace where users can store home directories and files.
The solution is applicable to the configurations below (list may be incomplete, refer to documentation for a fully supported list):
Core Use Case(s):
- Home folders / user profiles
- Filer storage
- Media server
- Prism Element (PE)
- ESXi (AOS 5.0 and beyond)
- Nutanix Snapshots and DR
- File level snapshots including Windows Previous Version (WPV)
- Self Service Restore
- CFT Backups
- CIFS 2.1
- NFS v4
- NFS v3 (as of AFS 3.5)
This feature is composed of a few high-level constructs:
- File Server
- High-level namespace. Each file server will have its own set of Files VMs (FSVM) which are deployed
- Share exposed to users. A file server can have multiple shares (e.g. departmental shares, etc.)
- Folders for file storage. Folders are sharded across FSVMs
The figure shows the high-level mapping of the constructs:
The Nutanix Files feature follows the same methodology for distribution as the Nutanix platform to ensure availability and scale. A minimum of 3 FSVMs will be deployed as part of the File Server deployment.
The figure shows a detailed view of the components:
The FSVMs are combined into a logical file server instance sometimes referred to as a Files cluster. You can create multiple Files clusters within a single Nutanix cluster. The FSVMs are transparently deployed as part of the configuration process.
The figure shows a detailed view of FSVMs on the AOS platform:
FSVM Deployment Arch
The Nutanix Files feature is fully integrated into Microsoft Active Directory (AD) and DNS. This allows all of the secure and established authentication and authorization capabilities of AD to be leveraged. All share permissions, user and group management is done using the traditional Windows MMC for file management.
As part of the installation process the following AD / DNS objects will be created:
- AD Computer Account for File Server
- AD Service Principal Name (SPN) for File Server and each FSVM
- DNS entry for File Server pointing to all FSVM(s)
- DNS entry for each FSVM
AD Privileges for File Server Creation
A user account with the domain admin or equivalent privileges must be used to deploy the File Service feature as AD and DNS objects are created.
Each FSVM leverages the Volumes API for its data storage which is accessed via in-guest iSCSI. This allows any FSVM to connect to any iSCSI target in the event of a FSVM outage.
The figure shows a high-level overview of the FSVM storage:
To provide for path availability DM-MPIO is leveraged within the FSVM which will have the active path set to the local CVM by default:
In the event where the local CVM becomes unavailable (e.g. active path down), DM-MPIO will activate one of the failover paths to a remote CVM which will then takeover IO.
FSVM MPIO Failover
When the local CVM comes back and is healthy it will be marked as the active path to provide for local IO.
In a normal operating environment each FSVM will be communicating with its own VG for data storage with passive connections to the others. Each FSVM will have an IP which clients use to communicate with the FSVM as part of the DFS referral process. Clients do not need to know each individual FSVM’s IP as the DFS referral process will connect them to the correct IP hosting their folder(s).
FSVM Normal Operation
In the event of a FSVM “failure” (e.g. maintenance, power off, etc.) the VG and IP of the failed FSVM will be taken over by another FSVM to ensure client availability.
The figure shows the transfer of the failed FSVM’s IP and VG:
FSVM Failure Scenario
When the failed FSVM comes back and is stable, it will re-take its IP and VG and continue to serve client IO.